top of page


Public·18 members
Waraporn Budtakien
Waraporn Budtakien

Lidar: A Powerful Tool for Mapping and Measuring the Earth

What is LiDAR and How Does it Work?

LiDAR is a remote sensing technology that uses light to measure distances and properties of objects on the Earth's surface. It has many applications in various fields such as mapping, surveying, navigation, and detection. In this article, we will explain what LiDAR is, how it works, what are its advantages and disadvantages, and some examples of how it is used in real life.


Download File:

Definition and History of LiDAR

LiDAR stands for Light Detection and Ranging

LiDAR is an acronym that stands for Light Detection and Ranging. It is a method of determining ranges or distances by targeting an object or a surface with a laser beam and measuring the time it takes for the reflected light to return to the receiver. By knowing the speed of light, the distance can be calculated from the time difference. The term "LiDAR" is sometimes also written as "LIDAR", "lidar", or "LiDar".

LiDAR was first developed in the 1960s as a laser-based ranging system

The first lidar-like system was introduced by the Hughes Aircraft Company in 1961, shortly after the invention of the laser. It was intended for satellite tracking and was called "Colidar", an acronym for "coherent light detecting and ranging". The first practical terrestrial application of a lidar system was the "Colidar Mark II", a large rifle-like laser rangefinder produced in 1963, which had a range of 7 miles (11 km) and an accuracy of 15 feet (4.6 m), to be used for military targeting. Since then, lidar technology has evolved and improved, becoming more compact, versatile, and powerful.

Principles and Components of LiDAR

LiDAR uses pulsed laser beams to measure distances and reflectance

A lidar system works by emitting pulses of laser light from a source (transmitter) and detecting the reflected light by a sensor (receiver). The laser light is usually in the visible or near-infrared spectrum, depending on the application and the target. The distance to the target is calculated by multiplying the speed of light by half of the time difference between the emission and the reception of the pulse. The reflectance or intensity of the returned signal is also recorded, which can provide information about the surface characteristics of the target, such as color, texture, or material.

LiDAR consists of a laser, a scanner, a receiver, and a GPS

A typical lidar system consists of four main components: a laser, a scanner, a receiver, and a GPS. The laser is the device that generates the pulses of light that are sent to the target. The scanner is the mechanism that directs the laser beam in different directions, creating a scan pattern. The receiver is the sensor that collects the reflected light and converts it into electrical signals. The GPS is the device that provides the location and orientation of the lidar system, which are essential for georeferencing the data. Depending on the platform and the application, a lidar system may also include other components such as an inertial measurement unit (IMU), a data storage unit, a power supply unit, or a computer.

Types and Applications of LiDAR

LiDAR can be classified into topographic and bathymetric based on the target surface

One way to classify lidar systems is based on the type of surface they are designed to measure: topographic or bathymetric. Topographic lidar systems are used to measure land surfaces, such as terrain, vegetation, buildings, or infrastructure. They usually use lasers in the near-infrared spectrum, which have high reflectance and low absorption by water. Bathymetric lidar systems are used to measure water surfaces, such as oceans, lakes, rivers, or coastal zones. They usually use lasers in the green spectrum, which have low reflectance and high penetration by water.

lidar sensor for self-driving car

lidar data processing software

lidar mapping services

lidar point cloud visualization

lidar drone surveying

lidar applications in archaeology

lidar vs radar vs sonar

lidar technology and its benefits

lidar accuracy and precision

lidar system design and optimization

lidar data sources and formats

lidar classification and segmentation

lidar calibration and validation

lidar remote sensing of vegetation

lidar detection of atmospheric particles

lidar measurement of wind speed

lidar simulation and modeling tools

lidar data compression and storage

lidar data fusion and integration

lidar data analysis and interpretation

lidar online courses and tutorials

lidar research papers and publications

lidar industry trends and challenges

lidar market size and growth

lidar companies and products

lidar cost and performance comparison

lidar standards and regulations

lidar quality assessment and control

lidar filtering and noise reduction

lidar feature extraction and recognition

lidar machine learning and artificial intelligence

lidar use cases and best practices

lidar history and future prospects

lidar safety and environmental impact

lidar innovation and development opportunities

lidar open source projects and communities

lidar events and conferences

lidar careers and jobs

lidar blogs and podcasts

lidar books and ebooks

LiDAR can be used for various purposes such as mapping, surveying, navigation, and detection

Lidar technology has many applications in various fields and industries, such as mapping, surveying, navigation, and detection. Some examples of lidar applications are:

  • Mapping: Lidar can create high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) or digital surface models (DSMs) of large areas with accuracy and detail. Lidar can also produce orthophotos or images that are geometrically corrected to represent true distances and angles.

  • Surveying: Lidar can provide accurate measurements of distances, angles, areas, volumes, or shapes of objects or features on the ground. Lidar can also monitor changes or deformations over time.

  • Navigation: Lidar can assist in navigation and positioning of vehicles or robots by providing real-time data on obstacles, terrain, or landmarks. Lidar can also enable autonomous or semi-autonomous driving or flying by providing situational awareness and guidance.

  • Detection: Lidar can detect and identify objects or targets of interest by analyzing their shape, size, location, movement, or reflectance. Lidar can also classify objects into categories based on their features or attributes.

Advantages and Disadvantages of LiDAR

Advantages of LiDAR

LiDAR is fast, accurate, and reliable

Lidar technology has several advantages over other remote sensing methods such as photogrammetry or radar. One of them is speed: lidar can collect data at a very high rate, up to millions of points per second. Another one is accuracy: lidar can provide precise measurements with sub-meter resolution and low error margins. A third one is reliability: lidar can produce consistent and repeatable results with minimal human intervention or interpretation.

LiDAR can cover large areas and penetrate vegetation

Lidar technology can also offer advantages over other ground-based methods such as surveying or fieldwork. One of them is coverage: lidar can scan large areas in a short time span, reducing the need for multiple visits or surveys. Another one is penetration: lidar can penetrate vegetation or canopy, revealing the underlying terrain or structures that may be hidden or obscured by plants or trees.

LiDAR can operate in day and night and in any weather conditions

Lidar technology can also offer advantages over other optical methods such as photography or satellite imagery. One of them is illumination: lidar can operate in day and night, as it does not depend on natural light sources such as the sun or the moon. Another one is weather: lidar can operate in any weather conditions, as it is not affected by clouds, fog, rain, or snow.

Disadvantages of LiDAR

LiDAR is expensive and complex

Lidar technology also has some disadvantages that may limit its use or applicability. One of them is cost: lidar systems are expensive to acquire, operate, and maintain, requiring specialized equipment, software, and personnel. Another one is complexity: lidar systems are complex to set up, calibrate, and process, requiring technical expertise and knowledge.

LiDAR may be affected by atmospheric interference or occlusion

Lidar technology may also face some challenges or limitations that may affect its performance or quality. One of them is interference: lidar signals may be attenuated, scattered, or distorted by atmospheric particles or molecules, such as dust, smoke, or water vapor. Another one is occlusion: lidar signals may be blocked or reflected by solid objects or surfaces, such as buildings, walls, or windows.

LiDAR may pose safety or privacy issues

Lidar technology may also raise some concerns or issues that may affect its acceptance or regulation. One of them is safety: lidar lasers may pose a risk of eye damage or injury to humans or animals if they are exposed to direct or indirect beams. Another one is privacy: lidar data may reveal sensitive or personal information about individuals or properties that may be subject to legal or ethical protection.

Examples of LiDAR Technology in Action

Uncovering Lost Cities with LiDAR

LiDAR can reveal hidden archaeological features under dense forests

One of the most fascinating applications of lidar technology is the discovery of lost cities and civiliza


Welcome to the group! You can connect with other members, ge...
Group Page: Groups_SingleGroup
bottom of page